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            What fixative products does Eastman make for the fragrance industry?

            Eastman makes a variety of products that are used as fragrance fixatives. These include: Eastman? Triacetin and Eastman Sustane? SAIB (sucrose acetate isobutyrate). For typical properties of these products, see Eastman publication CB-31.

            What is the function of a fragrance fixative?

            A fragrance fixative retards the volatility of fragrance components to increase the life of a perfume. In particular the fragrance fixative should have an affinity for the more volatile fragrance molecules (top notes), so that the scent of the perfume is more consistent throughout its life. Fragrance fixatives generally have a slow evaporation rate (low vapor pressure) and a low molecular weight. Factors that impact the choice of a fixative include the diffusion of fragrance components from the fixative over time, the solubility of fragrance components in the fixative, and the chemical inertness of the fixative to fragrance components.

            Which Eastman Tenox? antioxidant is most effective for highly unsaturated oils, such as soybean oil or sunflower oil?

            An oxidative stability study conducted by Eastman showed that the more unsaturated the oil, the more effective Eastman Tenox TBHQ (tertiary- butylhydroquinone) is compared to Eastman Tenox BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole), and Eastman Tenox BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene). Therefore, Eastman Tenox TBHQ is the antioxidant of choice for most vegetable oils.

            What is the maximum safe use level for Eastman Tenox? TBHQ antioxidant in cosmetics/personal care products?

            The Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association (CTFA) Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) panel have reviewed the safety of t-butyl hydroquinone. They concluded that “t-butyl hydroquinone may be safely used as a cosmetic ingredient at concentrations not to exceed 0.1 percent” (J. Am. Coll. Toxicol. 10(1), 1991).

            Which Eastman Tenox? antioxidant is most effective in lipstick to inhibit oxidation of castor oil?

            An oxidative stability test conducted at Eastman showed that Eastman Tenox? TBHQ (tertiary-butylhydroquinone) is about equally as effective in castor oil; and is much more effective than either Eastman Tenox BHA or Eastman Tenox BHT.

            How do you avoid pink discoloration of cosmetics/personal care products after adding Eastman Tenox? TBHQ?

            Some discoloration may occur with Eastman Tenox TBHQ (tertiary-butylhydroquinone) at an alkaline pH or in the presence of proteins and sodium salts. Specifically, Eastman Tenox TBHQ forms colored complexes with amines in fatty acid/amine emulsifier systems at alkaline pH. Therefore, to prevent discoloration of Eastman Tenox TBHQ, we suggest neutralizing acids with amines to a pH of 7 or less.

            What is the regulatory status of hydroquinone for use in skin-lightening products in the United States? What are the allowed levels of hydroquinone in these products?

            The U.S. FDA has issued a tentative final monograph for over-the-counter (OTC) skin-bleaching drug products (47 Federal Register 39108, Sept. 3, 1982). Hydroquinone is included in this monograph as the only safe and effective active ingredient for these products. Under the monograph, hydroquinone may be used at levels of 1.5% – 2.0%.

            What grade of hydroquinone should be used for skin-lightening formulations?

            It is the policy of Eastman to supply only USP Grade or European Pharma Grade hydroquinone for use in skin-lightening products.

            What are the factors that contribute to discoloration of skin-lightening formulations containing hydroquinone? What can be done to avoid discoloration of the formulation?

            Products containing hydroquinone for skin-lightening applications are subject to discoloration caused by oxidation. Steps to minimize the oxidation of hydroquinone include use of reducing agents in the formulation such as sodium bisulfite; maintaining cleanliness to minimize contamination of equipment and product by heavy metals such as iron, copper, silver, etc.; use of packaging materials having low oxygen permeability; and maintaining the final pH of the formulation below 7.

            In the cosmetics/personal care market, what other products use hydroquinone besides skin lighteners?

            Hydroquinone is used in hair dyes and colors and is also found in skin fresheners.

            What are the safe usage levels for hydroquinone in cosmetics/personal care applications other than skin lightening?

            The CTFA Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel has reviewed the safety of hydroquinone and concluded that it is safe at concentrations of 1.0% and less for aqueous cosmetics formulations designed for discontinuous brief use, followed by rinsing from the skin or hair. The application of hydroquinone as a skin lightener is considered to be a drug/cosmetics use and, therefore, is not included in the CIR review. SAIB (sucrose acetate isobutyrate, 100%) is extremely viscous. What are the handling guidelines for this product? The viscosity of SAIB in 100% form is greater than 100,000 cP at room temperature. If your application requires use of SAIB in this form, we suggest heating it to about 70°C to reduce the viscosity before pouring. Lower viscosity versions of SAIB that contain 10% solvent are also available.

            What are the suggested cosmetics/personal care applications for SAIB (sucrose acetate isobutyrate) products?

             SAIB product  Composition Suggested application
             Eastman SAIB-90EA 90% SAIB, 10% ethyl acetateNail polish
             Eastman SAIB-90 90% SAIB, 10% denatured ethanolNail polish
             Eastman Sustane? SAIB, food grade 100% food grade SAIBLipstick
             Eastman Sustane? SAIB-ET10, food grade 90% SAIB, food grade, 10% ethanol, food gradeFragrance
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